The Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) methodology includes a sensor test, a sensor performance model and a TA range prediction model. The test was developed as an alternative to the standard MRTD in order to:

  • cope with sensors that are under-sampled and
  • yield thresholds that are free from observer bias

The method has been applied to many types of conventional and advanced image-forming systems. Until now the validity of the method has not been violated despite many validation studies covering the effects of target contrast, aspect angle, amount of under-sampling, motion, dynamic super resolution, local adaptive contrast enhancement, smear and combinations of these. The relationship with the US TTP metric and the underlying tactical vehicle perception dataset has been assessed in several studies.

The TOD method has been implemented in UN regulation ECE-46 for indirect vision in vehicles. It is recommended in ITU G.1070 for videophony and is candidate for updates of STANAGs 4347-4351 for the performance measurement and modeling of thermal imagers and image intensifiers.